A breakthrough in regenerative medicine led to the discovery of unleashed benefits of extracellular vesicles. These vesicles are also referred to as exosomes and are involved in some integral functions of the human body. They are bounded by a lipid bilayer and are produced naturally in the human body by budding off from the membrane of a normal cell. Various intracellular communications are carried out via extracellular vesicles like the transport of nucleic acid, lipids, proteins, or other metabolites. The breakthrough which was discovered related to extracellular vesicles is their ability to act as therapeutic tools in various disorders.
Previously, it was suggested that these vesicles can be the cause of cardiovascular diseases as their level rises in pathological diseases. But later on, it was discovered that they can have a therapeutic effect on cardiovascular diseases. Not only do they function as therapeutic tools but diagnostic tools as well in various fatal diseases like cancer. Furthermore, in this article, we describe the role of extracellular vesicles as therapeutic tools in various pathologies of the human body.
Role in Cardiovascular Diseases
In case of myocardial infarction or any other cardiac disease in which damage is caused to cardiac cells, the extracellular vesicles can act as repairing agents by causing cellular proliferation which means an increase in the number of normal and healthy cardiac cells. They can also regenerate tissue, and hence they have the ability to play role in the growth of human body organs after the damage has been caused due to multifactorial reasons.
In previous times, the pharmacological drugs that were used and are still being used had various serious side effects like reflex tachycardia, reflex bradycardia, convulsions, orthostatic hypotension, GI distress, sedation, and arrhythmic block for the treatment for cardiac diseases like angina, hypertension, and cardiac failure. So far such side effects had not been associated with the therapeutic role of extracellular vesicles. For more, click to Trino Marin that would be the right place for you.
Role in Neurodegenerative Disease
The next benefit of extracellular vesicles is their role in neurodegenerative diseases. The most common cause of such diseases is aging. With aging, the cells lose their capability to function
normal and hence, the nervous system is not able to work effectively and efficiently. The neurodegenerative diseases involve Huntington’s disease, Parkinsonism’s, or Alzheimer’s disease. You must be perplexing that how can extracellular vesicles be beneficial in neurodegenerative diseases, right? They can be beneficial as they can help in the generation of the myelin sheath which is an outer covering of neurons and assists in the propagation of action potential. Normal propagation of action potential is integral for the normal functioning of the central nervous system.
Another extraordinary benefit of extracellular vesicles in such diseases is their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier which most pharmacological drugs cannot. By crossing this barrier, the vesicles can have assessed to cite of injury in the brain which indicates that they can reach the sites of injury and help in recovery. These vesicles also have a role in normal physiological processes of the central nervous system.
Role in the Inflammatory Diseases
Last but not the least, extracellular vesicles also play important role in recovering from inflammatory diseases. Inflammatory diseases are immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions that are caused when an antigen causes the release of histamine, interleukins, and other inflammatory agents. These vesicles can modulate immune responses. Their role in such diseases is due to the presence of pro-inflammatory micro RNAs in their structure.
Through such micro RNAs, extracellular vesicles can mediate the release of neutrophils. Neutrophils are part of the body’s defense system against inflammatory reactions. Hence, their increased release helps the body to fight against the inflammation, and assist in recovering from it. Previously, only their role in the pathology of inflammatory diseases was known but recent studies and advanced research led to the unleashing of their anti-inflammatory effect along with the role in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.
To conclude, we can say that extracellular vesicles are a peerless breakthrough in regenerative medicine. Their regenerative role can reverse the damage that is caused to
human body organs due to any pathology, and assist in recovering without any side effects. So, these vesicles also eliminated the risks that are caused by other pharmacological drugs in the treatment of human body diseases.